The Nature Park Papuk has a unique position in the collision zone of two macro plates – the African and the Eurasian. On a small area we meet various sorts of rocks (igneous, sediment and metamorphic) created from the Precambrian era to date. The rocks on Papuk are formed in various geological surroundings, and the results of that are the varieties of rocks considering the lithology, stratigraphic age or structural characteristics.
Geological, Papuk is situated in the most southern part of the tectonic unit Tisija, representing a part of the Pre Neogene crystal base of the Pannonian basin. Papuk is generally built of metamorphic and
igneous rocks, and it is presumed that the shoots of the Tisian rock units found on Papuk are the best examples on the wider area of the Pannonian basin.
The Permian – Trieric sediments and layers from the age of Neogene and Quaternary lay on the crystal basis. Data related to the age of metamorphites (phyllite, colorful slate, gneiss, mimgatites, amphiibolite) and granite are sparingly and their age is subject to frequent clashes between geologists; some consider them as Precambrian, while others classify them as Lower Paleozoic.
In Cenozoik we find fossiliferous sediments, mainly of Miocene age, when Papuk was an island in the “Pannonian sea”. Volcanic activities took place during the Miocene also, proof for that are volcanic deposits and smaller volcanic bodies, the final tectonic risings and erosions of rocks on the Slavonian hills, have accumulated large amounts of sedimentary detritus, now preserved as more than 1 kilometer thick accumulations of the Sava and Drava river valley.